The Power of Silence

Not so many years ago in the dim and distant past, the very first full length public talk I did was called “An Anatomy of a Risk Assessment”; it was a successful talk and one I was asked to present several times again in the following years. Below is a film of the second time I presented it, this time at BSides London:

My presentation style left a lot to be desired, and I seemed unable to stop using note cards until almost eighteen months later despite me not using them for other talks I gave! (Top speaking tip folks, never use printed notes when speaking, it conditions your mind to think it can only deliver when using them.) But that is not the focus of this message.

One of the pieces of “anatomy” that I spoke about in terms of risk assessments was the ears. The principle being that since you have two ears and one mouth, when auditing or assessing you should be listen twice as much as be speaking. This is important for two reasons, the second of which may not be as obvious as the first:

  1. If you are assessing someone or something, you should be drawing information from them. When you are speaking you are not gaining any information from them which is a wasted opportunity. As a consequence of this therefore,
  2. There will be periods of silence which you must not feel tempted to break. Just as nature fills a vacuum so a human wants to fill a silence. Silence therefore will encourage the target of the assessment to open up even more, just so as not to feel awkward!

Interestingly, after my very first presentation of this talk, a member of the audience asked me if i had ever been in the Police Force. “I haven’t” I replied.

Well, some of the techniques you just described are exactly like police interrogation techniques, especially the silence. I should know, I used them every day!

Flattered though I was, I did become a little concerned! Was i taking this risk assessment malarkey a little too seriously? Was i subjecting people to what amounted to an interrogation?

Obviously this was not the case, but it occurred to me that in the many books i have read on risk assessment and audit, never is the softer side of the process covered. We tend to focus on the technology, or the boxes that need to be ticked, when actually we can simply sit back and let others do the talking. I also employ humour very often to help people relax, and even do it when i am on the other side of the table too. It can make a gruelling and mindless activity far more engaging and allow you to connect with the person on the other side of the table more effectively.

It engenders trust.

You can apply many of the techniques described in the presentation in your daily work lives, especially when on a discovery programme or wanting to get to the bottom of an incident. In fact, I can’t think of anything easier than having a (one-sided) chat with someone and getting the assessment completed.

Or as Will Rogers, actor and vaudeville performer in the early 1900’s put it:

Never miss a good chance to shut up


On another note, look out for a new series of YouTube films coming from me in the next few weeks.

I give you, The Lost CISO


Flushing Risk at 44CON

logo-1I have just returned from two long days and two long nights of 44CON, the premier conference in London for technical InfoSec professionals (and even a few of us management types). It saw the debut of by “Flushing Away Preconceptions of Risk” presentation, an expansion of the my recent post for the Analogies Project.

The core messages of the presentation are not necessarily pleasant ones; the correct use of risk in any organisation is one of the most powerful tools in an information security programme, and yet it seems to me that very few of us understand it fully. Many of us struggle with not only identifying what the real risks are in the first place, but also how to measure them and even how to properly treat them.

Doing my bit to advertise 44CON

Doing my bit to advertise 44CON

Identifying risks at first seems like an easy think – identify assets, and then identify what could go wrong. I won’t elaborate the analogy much here (read it at the Analogies Project), but given how we regularly fail to identify risky behaviours correctly in our daily lives it should be no surprise we fail to do so professionally. The same bias applies to when we subsequently try and measure the risks; every mechanism we use introduces potential errors and even vagueness. I was quite proud to introduce the Langford/Malik Risk Model (ver 1.0), an approach that I evolved from one that Javvad Malik introduced in his book. Again, it uses an analogy although this time of a pub fight to not only describe levels of risk but also risk appetite. I do hope that not too many of you will find it useful next Friday and Saturday night.

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The Langford/Malik Risk Model ver 1.0

Finally the effective treatment of risk was covered, and how we so often simply do what has been done before, not what is going to be effective now. Just because a risk hasn’t been realised doesn’t mean you have treated it effectively, it just means that an incident hasn’t happened (that you know of).

The slides are below, but since my presentation style has evolved more into storytelling rather than bullet point reading, by themselves they may say little to you, but the session was recorded and when it is released I will make it available here. Like any presentation it barely touches the surface of risk management and its issues, but it was intended to be thought provoking and prompt people to not assume that just because they have always done things in a certain way that it is the best or even correct way.

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As for 44CON itself, well, any conference that has a “gin o’clock” on each day has to be pretty good in my books! It was a very well organised conference, with an excellent and highly motivated Crew to help support it. SpeakerOps were particularly good providing a personal touch I have not seen at any other conference. The quality of the talks and the speakers was also excellent, but as I alluded to in my introduction, many of them were technically beyond me!

The highlight for me however was a workshop I attended demonstrating the beta version of the Cyber CPR product. This is a virtual machine (that can also be deployed on ultra portable hardware if need be) that builds and entire incident management environment allowing for the discovery, gathering and analysis of evidence during an incident. It build a virtual “war room” environment, where multiple incidents can be tracked at once, in a secure and separate environment from the one that has actually just been breached. With tools built into the backend and access via a browser it even does away to have many of the tools on your own environment, making it great for remote and ad hoc use alike.

The product is in Beta at the moment, and does lack a few features, (they described it as not ready for active duty), but what i saw  was very polished and useful even in it’s beta configuration. Commercially it will be available for free with up to three users, and only $5k GBP for up to twenty (please don’t quote me on these figures though). I would strongly recommend you take a look at this excellent environment that for very little outlay will significantly improve many current incident response teams, and their over use of Excel. The team expects it to be commercially ready by Spring next year.

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Obligatory selfie with Jonathon Schiefer

The final highlight was to be able to meet Jonathon Schiefer  the director of the film Algorithm  which had its European debut at 44CON on Wednesday night. It was fascinating to hear about the backstory of the film, his challenges and even how he made the film financially and technically. He was an absolute pleasure to chat with, and I thoroughly regretted my decision to have a curry instead of watching the film. At a stretch you could say we are kindred spirits when it comes to our film making, but he is without a doubt in an entirely different league to me!

44CON will be back next year, but we were also enticed with the news of another 44CON spring conference being planned as well. I would strongly recommend anyone who can get to London to attend both of these conferences. Congratulations to Adrian and Steve and the many people in the crew for putting on a fabulous conference.


Getting Your Hands Dirty

dirty-handsIn my last post I referred to ensuring that your risk management programme is producing the quality of output to ensure the business information it feeds into is of the highest quality; maintaining the integrity of your programme.

If there is one thing that can be done to improve the integrity of your risk assessments it is simply to get your hands dirty during them. I have had a number of conversations with people who have been on the receiving end of an assessment where the assessor simply sits at the table and asks for evidence in the form of documentation, verbal responses or even just PowerPoint presentations to confirm the effectiveness of the information security programme in question. Personally I have sat in a conference room for one or two days at a time and only left the room for a short thirty minute ‘walkabout’. Quite how the assessor felt they were getting a representative view of what we were doing was beyond me.

There are a number of problems with this hands off approach:

The ability of those being assessed to ‘play’ the assessor increases with their reluctance to physically move around the organisation. Pre-prepared evidences (the so called “audit box” as was once described to me) can be made available, the organisations SME’s can be wheeled in to ensure the right things are said at the right time and the people who never seem able to say the right thing at the right time (and every organisation has them!) can be told to work in a different building that day.

Secondly, unless the assessor is actually looking at the evidence first hand, even down to rifling through the physical pieces of paper or reviewing server logs, there is absolutely no way any kind of discrepancy will ever be found. Of course this is a sampling exercise, and of course there is no way every single piece of evidence, paper or electronic can be reviewed, but some kind of benefit can be gleaned from going though them. Quite apart form anything else it gives the clear impression that “no stone is unturned” during the assessment process. I have come up with a surprising number of findings from simply taking a few minutes to look through large piles of paper records.

Finally, and perhaps slightly more esoterically, the action of a walkabout can give a very good “feel” for a place. If the presence of the auditor brings hurried and furtive glances everywhere they go, it may give the indication of nervousness or unwillingness regarding the assessment (or of course just a healthy distrust of strangers). If there are rows of empty desks that are obviously normally in use but seem to be vacated for the day this may give the indication that special plans have been laid on for the assessment (or that the sales team are in a meeting). This last point is not so clear cut as the other two, and should only be used as an indicator of what is already coming out of your assessment, but it is a useful one nonetheless.

I have a colleague who every time he enters a “serious” meeting, he undoes his cufflinks and rolls up his cuffs a couple of times; this is his way of mentally preparing for the challenge ahead by literally rolling up his sleeves. When it comes to risk assessments that is exactly what you need to do, and then prepare yourself to get your hands dirty.


eCrime and Information Security Congress

IMG_0002I presented at the eCrime and Information Security Congress on Wednesday, and had a terrific time presenting on my thoughts around making risk assessments more effective for the business. It was probably the largest audience I have presented to, and the stage and AV set up was suitably impressive. I had the support of two fine upstanding members of the infosec community (as well as @j4vv4d and @sirjester…) throughout the day and was fortunate enough to get some great feedback from both the organisers (in the form of @jonhawes) and Javvad after the event.

The key points I was making were:

  1. Ensure your risk management programme is producing the quality data that subsequently becomes business information.
  2. Know how to present your information in a compelling manner to ensure your message (and business information) gets across to the right people.
  3. Understand the connection between your activities and your organisations primary purpose, whatever that may be.

The presentation ran to just under twenty minutes but unfortunately the house style appeared to be not to field questions at the end. I felt I engaged well with the audience and had some unsolicited feedback to that effect afterwards, but I would have welcomed the opportunity to chat around the ideas and cocepts I was putting forwards. If anybody who watched the presentation reads this post please don’t hesitate to ask something!

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As usual I have posted the slides below; I also intend to post a movie of the slides with a voiceover, but those of you who are still waiting for the footage from an event I did in September will know how prompt I am in creating these film. Javvad I am not!

The event itself appeared to be very well attended by both the public and sponsors, in fact a huge number of sponsors compared to even RSA Europe last year. The break out session were apparently very useful (I was unable to attend any as i arrived only for the last half of the second day, but heard good things about them), and above all the food was excellent!

Thanks to the folks at AKJ Associates for inviting me to speak, and especially to Jon Hawes. With a bit of luck I will be doing more of this in the coming months.

CIA Triangle eCrimes Congress PDF


Wash Out Your Ears – The importance of listening during risk assessments

listening-ears1I can’t tell you the number of times I have sat on the other side of the table during a risk assessment or audit and not only been talked at by the auditor but also not even listened to. Unless what I or my colleagues are saying are a part of the accepted script the auditor expects to hear it can often fall on deaf ears.

It doesn’t matter if what I am saying is germane to the topic in hand, explains in more technical detail, or even if it addresses a number of questions old or yet unasked, the auditor blindly continues, or even just appears to switch off. How can this lead to a successful audit or assessment? To some, an audit or assessment is a sequence of activities to be completed in a set order and a set pace, and that will never result in quality findings. Approaching an audit or risk assessment from a less mechanical perspective will often derive results in unexpected ways.

Simply listening will give you at least two things:

  1. More information. It may not always be immediately relevant, but at some point in the day it will help you form a larger and more complete picture.
  2. Unprepared auditees will sometimes talk themselves into trouble! Nerves can make people do very silly things, and letting people engage their mouths before their brains can lead to some startling insights.

When you combine the above points you can often find what I call the “over specific response” occurring. What this means is that people will also sometimes be very specific in their responses, for instance when asked if a particular procedure has been tested, the response “Yes, this procedure has been tested” gives rise to so many other questions such as “when, where, and by whom?”, and yet at a casual listening it is a very positive response. Listening to the exact response and unpicking the precise verbiage is vital.

Additionally, there is one other aspect of listening that should be observed; that is, carrying on listening even when the other person has stopped talking. Just as nature abhors a vacuum, human beings as social animals abhor a silence. Staying silent for longer than is comfortable (at least to them) very often produces more talking and more information than they originally intended. When I first presented this thought just over a year ago in a risk forum a member of the Metropolitan Police in the audience later asked me if I had ever had interrogation training, as this was exactly one of the approaches they used! I would certainly never suggest that an audit or assessment is an interrogation, but there is very much an art to getting the maximum amount of information out of someone trying to give you the absolute minimum.

One rule of thumb to take away in this instance is a quote I first read in The Leaders Workbook by Kai Roer (@kairoer):

Try to keep in mind that you have twice as many ears as you have mouth, implying you should spend more time listening than talking.

That’s a pretty good ratio for any risk assessment or audit I think.